Sunday, June 26, 2011

Sti Logi

HOW CAN YOU BE MORE ACCURATE IN GLOSA?


Short answer:  The best thing to do is be careful, think about what you are writing, and watch out for any ambiguities.  Avoid using negative constructions, especially in questions; the word NOT is a troublesome one to translate.


Long answer:


1)  Frequent use of U(N) and PLU.


This helps the reader/listener to distinguish nouns from verbs.


2)  Use a lot of prepositions.


When you use a preposition, a noun is likely to come somewhere after it.  In this way, prepositions are much like U(N) and PLU.  (Consequently you do not have to use U(N)/PLU after prepositions.)


Do not, however, translate English prepositions literally.  Do you really depend ON someone?  That makes it sound like someone is carrying you— you’re ON someone— and that expresses it poetically.  In Glosa, however, we want to express this logically.  You are getting something FROM someone, so here the Glosa preposition DE would be a better translation of the English ON.


Another good clue about which preposition to use is to copy the particle found at the beginning of the verb.  For example:


U viktimi-pe pa grafo u DEskribe DE u-la krimi-pe.
The victim wrote a description about ABOUT the criminal.


U bali-pe pa INklude u qantita de valuta IN grama-ve.
The sender included some money IN the envelope.


U skience-pe pa KOmbina plu kemi oxigena e hidrogena KOn alelo.
The scientist combined the chemicals oxygen and hydrogen WITH each other.


Sti KOmpara de u-ci KOn u-la.
Compare this WITH that.


U mikro komerci pa akti u KOmpeti KOn u mega.
The small business competed WITH the big one.


Fini, na gene KOmunika KOn hetero planeta.
Finally we are communicating WITH another planet.


U neo-pe pa KOnfusi plu pomi KO plu orange.
The novice confused apples WITH oranges.


Also be careful of the dual meanings of English prepositions.  If you fight WITH your brother, are you fighting AGAINST (Glosa: ANTI) him or AT HIS SIDE (Glosa: KO, PARA)?  If you have a medicine FOR coughs, does it HINDER (Glosa: STO) coughing or STIMULATE (Glosa: STI) coughing?


Glosa DE is considered the most general of all prepositions.  Use it if you can’t think of a better preposition.  If you want to be accurate, avoid it.


3) Use verboids.


The Glosa textbooks mention— but don’t insist on— the use of verboids.  VERBOIDS are words that tend to be verbs— although really any word in Glosa can be a noun, verb, adjective, etc.


Professor Lancelot Hogben used verboids in nearly all his Glosa sentences.  They are:


akti
apo
audi
bali
dona
detekti
dice
es
este
face
gene
habe
ki(ne)
lose
moti
reakti
sti/sto
tena
vide


What this means by example is instead of saying, “He jumped”— JUMP is not a verboid— you say:


An pa akti u salta. He did a jump.
An pa face u salta. He made a jump.
An pa sti u salta. He “turned on” a jump.


In the above sentences the word JUMP is always a noun, and the verboid is always the verb.  Use whichever verboid most precisely conveys the meaning you have in your head.  AKTI has the most general meaning and can be placed before any noun to make a verb out of it.  For example:


/- Translation -\
English word Without verboid With verboid


die morta lose bio
live bio habe bio
love filo este filo
translate translati akti (u) translati
unite uni akti (un) uni


In translating with verboids I often skip U(N)/PLU to give a very general meaning.  AKTI TRANSLATI means “translating” in general, while AKTI U TRANSLATI means that I am referring to only one certain translation.


I do not use verboids 100%, finding them redundant at times.  Consider:


Fe pa dromo a boteka.
She ran to the store.
(Here there is no verboid.  DROMO is the verb.)


Fe pa dromo kine a boteka.
(Literally:)  She “runningly” went to the store.
(Here the verboid KINE was used, so DROMO had to become an adverb.)


Comprehensive examples:


To demonstrate how the last two points above give Glosa more accuracy in meaning, consider the following sentence using the word MANU [English: HAND] es a verb:


Fe pa manu id.


Any word in Glosa can be used as a verb.  But how do you translate this sentence?  Think of all the things you can do with your hand:


1)  She handed it over.
2)  She shoved it.
3)  She slapped it.
4)  She patted it.
5)  She petted it.
6)  She applauded it.


Now let's translate these sentences, forcing ourselves to use a verboid.  Notice also how using the preposition PER helps to add accuracy to the meaning.


1)  Fe pa dona id per manu.
She gave it by hand.
2)  Fe pa moti id per ge-tensio manu.
She moved it with an out-stretched hand.
3)  Fe pa bate id per ge-tensio manu.
She struck it with an out-stretched hand.
4)  Fe pa gentili bate id itera e itera.
She gently struck it again and again.
5)  Fe pa gentili bate id per frika moti.
She gently struck it with a rubbing motion.
6)  Fe pa monstra latri per manu-fono.
She showed praise with hand-sounds.


Look at the “back translations.”  Sure, they sound a little strange to our English-accustomed ears.  Each one, however, is much more accurate in meaning than “FE PA MANU ID.”


Yes, there are other ways to translate the six meanings above.  FRIKA could be used as a verb in number 5, and LATRI could be used as a verb in number 6.  The idea of this exercise is that you see the discipline involved in using verboids and see that they can force you to be more accurate.

Saturday, June 18, 2011

North Star Caviar

NORD-ASTRO PISKI OVA


De Na Negoti


Nord-Astro Piski Ova es un idio NO-PROFITA kompani. Na proto es kron anua 1993 u ge-juga negoti ex bi no-profita organi, un Area Mero de Negoti de urba Williston, e plu Ami de Bi Alexi-lo Juga [Union] e Buford.


Akorda u papira inter Nord-Astro Piski Ova e u Piski-e-Casa-Zoa Mero de stato Nord Dakota, plu sucede piski sporta kapti-pe gratis dona plu piski spathula Poliodonti ova kambio gratis puri plu piski. Po-co na face boni-qalita sito ex plu ova e vendo mu topo holo-munda merka-lo. Na habe plu lice de internatio fero e CITES negoti.


Na bali u proto mero de singu-anua profita ex plu vendo de piski ova a Piski-e-Casa-Zoa Mero, tende akti recerka, gene info e akti alexi de plu spathula. Na dona plu resta profita a plu area no-profita grega pro histori, kultura e sporta ergo de natura tera e sporta ad-aqa-lo.

Saturday, June 4, 2011

Justi, Pentecost 2011

U MALI ACIDE TOPO JAPAN- "QO-RA ES UN HOMI...?"

Mi sponsa e mi pa este un hedo de visita plu nesia Hawaii proto-kron pre brevi tem- faktu, simpli proxi mono setimana pri plu mali acide de Japan.

Pa es mei longi de mono setimana, po na imuni re-veni (grati a Tu, Teo!), kron na vide plu deino vista per tele-vide de geo-seiso topo Japan e plu seqe unda (plus plu mega unda topo Hawaii, e plu kosta de Oregon e Kalifornia). Uno anti-muta nova-pe pa dice; vide panto-ci ra sti; plu homi "feno es non-importa." Na ski u ra; an dice, qe?

GENE-PROTO 1: 28 Sti arki supra plu piski de mari, supra plu avi de aero, e supra panto bio-ra; qi kine epi Geo.

Anti na krea-Pe Teo pa dona a plu homi un arki, plu-ci tristi acide monstra plu limita de u-ci arki. Per-co u sankti grafo; qi sti menta, es u Kanta 8:

KANTA 8: 3 Qo-ra es un homi, iso Tu este kura de an- u fili de homi, iso Tu kura de an?

Plu homi per un arki ergo; Teo pa dona a mu, pa akti, e du akti, plu grandi e mira ra. An pa tekto plu supra-soni peti-me; qi kine tako supra e peri na planeta. An pa tekto plu mega oceani-viagia navi (klude na viagia navi!); per qi na kine epi plu forti oceani. An pa tekto plu nuklea dina-do; qi krati nuklea dina, te plu uti id, e sti ma boni plu komuni.

Kausa qo u-ci es tali? Qo-ra pa gene acide ad un arki de homi; Teo pa dona ad an?

U ra; qi gene acide, es ge-rekorda in kapitula 3 de Gene-Proto! U no-sucede de panto homi a kako es tristi e pro mu e pro panto ge-krea ra de Teo, klu tem mu nu atende un ultima salva:

ROMA 8: 19 Un honesti spe de plu ge-krea ra du zelo atende de u monstra de plu fili de Teo. 20 Panto ge-krea ra pa gene infra vani ne kausa volu, sed kausa An; Qi pa sti obe mu kausa spe, 21 kausa panto ge-krea ra plus fu gene salva ab u dulo tem de kako a u glori libe de plu fili de Teo. 22 Na ski; panto ge-krea ra du voci e sufere ko plu algo de nati a nu-tem.

Na Teo, na krea-Pe e merka-Pe, lase libe plu tali destru acide a panto homi iso plu pre-kron judika anti u kako munda. Mu es plu pre-ra de u mega destru acide, un ultima judika, kron Kristo Jesu; Qi veni a na kako munda tende salva e merka kako na, re-veni a munda ko justi:

JOHANES 3: 17 Teo ne pa bali Auto Fili a munda tende akti judika anti munda, sed tende u munda per An fu gene salva. 18 An; qi kredi de An, ne habe u judika. Anti-co an; qi ne kredi, nu habe u judika, kausa an ne nu kredi de nomina de mono veri Fili de Teo.

Sti puta de tali sankti grafo:

AMOS 9: 6 Es An; Qi tekto Auto libela in urani, e pa establi plu libela in geo, e Qi kla plu aqa de mari, e fusi mu epi facia de geo- u Cefa es An nomina.

KANTA 93: 4 Na Cefa topo alti es ma dina de fono de poli aqa, e de plu dina unda de mari.

KANTA 89: 9 Tu du krati supra turba de mari. Kron plu unda leva se, Tu sti kalma mu.

Un holo-tem Teo veni a na munda tende salva plu kako homi AB kako de u-ci munda, e AD u fu-tem munda, u perfekti hedo de urani; topo qi panto kredi fili de An du eko tende latri An holo-tem, tem NU e FU dice:

KANTA 8: 9 O TEO, na Teo, tali regi es Tu nomina topo holo Geo!

(Pe pote detekti u supra lekto e poli plus lekto per England glosa topo: www.lutheranspokesman.org)