Sunday, March 27, 2011

Sti Logi

WHY DO SOME GLOSA WORDS HAVE MOBILE CONSONANTS?


Short answer: Professor Lacelot Hogben wanted Glosa to be a spoken language.

Long answer:

Some Glosa words add a consonant before the vowels (A, E, I, O, U) and H. The words are U(N), A(D), and NO(N). (E(X) has been dropped from the original Interglossa language.)

Hogben knew how useful these are in natural languages. In many languages, people tend to blend vowels together. Inserting the mobile (meaning "sometimes") consonant keeps speakers from slopping the vowels together, so the listener hears two distinct syllables instead of one. Although the speaker of Glosa may find this troublesome, it is designed to make it easier for the LISTENER.

Sunday, March 20, 2011

Sti Logi

DO YOU ALWAYS NEED TO PUT U(N) OR PLU BEFORE A NOUN?


Short answer: You don't have to use them at all, but frequent use of U(N)/PLU makes Glosa easier to understand.

Long answer:

I know why this question comes up. If you're translating from English, you've probably noticed that many times we use no articles before a noun; to compound the problem, often these are collective nouns-- nouns we don't normally count, like water, salt, snow-- so how do you know whether to use U(N) "one" or PLU "more than one"?

The easy thing to do is just skip U(N)/PLU all together. I try not to skip it, and this is how I solved the problem:

Consider the English word FREEDOM. FREEDOM is a collective noun; that is, we don't count "one freedom, two freedoms, three freedoms...." But one person might say:

The freedom we enjoy....

Another person might say:

The freedoms we enjoy....

Why does one use the singular and one use the plural? In the second example, the speaker is thinking of KINDS of freedom, perhaps "freedom of speech," "freedom of the press," etc.

So when I come across a noun, I ask myself: How many different KINDS am I talking about? If it's more than one kind, I use PLU, or if it's only one kind, I use U(N).

Another way to understand this is, if "the freedom" sounds like a passable English noun phrase, then saying "a freedom" [Glosa: U LIBE] should be correct in Glosa.

No, this doesn't solve all problems. And it is just my personal solution. Rather than force my solution on anyone, I would encourage you to take logic in hand, come up with your own solution, and use it consistently. Glosa is flexible enough to handle such individualism.

Sunday, March 13, 2011

Sti Logi

IS U(N)/PLU MORE OF A DEFINITE OR INDEFINITE ARTICLE?


Short answer: Read the short answer above.

Long answer:

Apply some logic to the question: U(N) refers to one thing; PLU refers to a more UNDEFINED quantity of things. U(N), therefore, is a little more definite than PLU. But neither exactly fits the English pattern of definite or indefinite articles.

As I explained above, every language has different ways of expressing definiteness. If you're afraid someone might misunderstand what you're saying in Glosa, consider using one of the following clarifiers:

--------------------
MORE DEFINITE
--------------------

panto-ci panto-la

holo panto

mi tu an fe id na vi mu

u-ci plu-ci u-la plu-la

zero (nuli) mo(no) bi tri tetra...

u(n)
--------------------
plu

(Nothing)

uno u/plu certa

ali

--------------------
LESS DEFINITE
--------------------

All of the above words may be preceded or followed by U(N)/PLU since they do refer to nouns, or they may take the place of U(N)/PLU. The speaker's own language habits will probably determine this.

PANTO and HOLO are very inclusive words, leaving little doubt about what quantity is specified, even though no specific number is mentioned. They can be combined with -CI or -LA, making them even more specific to an object or group. It is also possible to say "PANTO PLU-CI HOMI," "all these people."

Possessive adjectives (MY, YOUR, HIS, HER, OUR, THEIR, ITS) do not specify number, but qualify to whom the things belong.

U-LA "that," PLU-LA "those," U-CI "this," and PLU-CI "these" are all more specific than U(N)/PLU. Since Glosa does not have a true definite article, you may want to use these somtimes in place of the English word THE.

Using a specific number can help to qualify things. Numbers can be combined with -CI and -LA to make them more specific. BI-CI and BI-LA have the same meaning "both." TRI-CI could mean "these three" or "this trio."

UNO and CERTA state that a certain thing does definitely exist, but you do not give its identity.

ALI is the most abstract of the above words. It could refer to any thing at any time.

Sunday, March 6, 2011

Justi, 2011, Lent

     D E   N O R D A   D A K O T A
               e de na


U DETEKTI-VIAGIA DE MAXIMILIAN E BODMER


Regi-fili Alexander Philipp Maximilian 
(1782-1867) pa es u cefa de Neuwied,
Prussien.  An pa es plus u 
natura-skience-pe.  Tem 1815-1817 an es 
topo Brazil, topo an pa deskribe poli 
fito e zoa.  An volu viagia a plu ge-Uni
Stato, kausa an doxo; plu detekti-viagia
la pa no-sufici deskribe u natura e
plu proto landa-pe (plu Indiana).


Anua 1832 an inkontra Karl Bodmer 
(1809-1893) de Helvetia.  Bodmer pa es u
boni arti-pe de plu natura vista.  An 
akorda de viagia ad USA ko Maximilian. 
U servi-pe de Maximilian, David Droppel,
kine ko mu.


Po mari viagia de 48 di, mu veni a 
civita Boston u di tetra de meno Seti.  
Mu kine per vagona a civita Pittsburgh, 
poste per vapo navi a stato Indiana.  La
mu dice ko France arti e natura-pe 
Charles Alexandre Leseur, e kon Amerika
insekti-pe Thomas Say.  Poste mu kine a 
civita Sankti Louis, te visita u cefa de
u proto Amerika detekti-viagia 
(1804-1806) William Clark.


Fini, meno Tetra de anua 1833, mu viagia 
kon u navi de Amerika Peli Kompani longi
fluvi Missouri.  U viagia habe plu 
risko.  U tempestu pa ago u navi anti
litora, e destru plu exempla de fito e 
zoa.  U piro in u navi kausa; plu
navi-pe bali plu exempla a fluvi.  
Maximilian proxi morta kausa pato.  Plu
kroma-ma de Bodmer gene geli.  Un 
Amerika forti-lo Leavenworth pa rapi 
brandi; Maximilian uti te tena plu 
exempla.  Anti-co plu viagia-pe freqe 
visita plu komerci-lo de peli kompani te
dice ko plu Indiana e kroma plu pikto.  
Mu viagia dia nu-di Nord Dakota.  Meno 
Seti, mu veni a forti-lo McKenzie. 
Maximilian pa volu kine a plu Lito 
Monti.  Anti-co u milita inter bi 
Indiana demo; an vide la, kausa; an 
decide anti u-la.  Mu re-veni longi plu
Grandi Lagu a Neo York anua 1834, meno 
Seti, di 16.


Maximilian pa face u bibli de an viagia.
Bodmer pa face proxi 400 kroma-arti.
Plu ergo-pe auxi; an face plu presa-taba
de 81 ex mu te face plu kopi de mu.
                ____ 
               ___--'--___        
                  |#/ ||\         
                 /'/' #|\__-      
                / |-  #| -        
                 / -- ||-
               / | |----- \#
             /## | |   /    |
           /#### | /  /  |  |
          | ##  |   -/  | ==|
          |__#_ |       //""
          |    \|      // """
          |__-/ |        /"""
          |    |      _ / """
          |    |     / /_ /""
          |  / |_   /_|,, """  
         |    | |--_    \\"""
         |   /  |  |     \\""
         |  /   "  | + =  \\ 
        |       "| | + =   \
        |       "| | + =
 ______/         | |   |
 ---------------/_ |  |
                   /_/ 


  Ex u pikto ge-face de Bodmer.  Un 
 Indiana milita-pe.  An habe plu pina 
epi kefa e u tegu ex bisona dermi epi
dextro braki.  In laevo manu es milita
               peleka.